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Link Either by signing into your account or linking your membership details before your order is placed. Description Table of Contents Product Details Click on the cover image above to read some pages of this book! In Stock. Marketing Management, Global Edition. Item Added: Brand Strength. View Wishlist.


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Our Awards Booktopia's Charities. Are you sure you would like to remove these items from your wishlist? Hypothesis 2: Cognitive antecedents will positively influence brand equity.

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Hirschman and Holbrook contended that people tend to engage in certain consumption experiences to seek out pleasure and entertainment. In addition, Hackley and Tiwsakul emphasized that entertainment marketing can influence experiential consumption. On the basis of the above review, we identified seven experiential antecedents that can influence CBBE either directly, or indirectly through brand personality: 1 experiential perception, 2 entertainment value, 3 aesthetic value, 4 brand attachment, 5 brand affect, 6 enjoyment value, and 7 hedonic attitude.

Hedonic attitude is the consumption that involves emotional arousal taking place while purchasing or consuming. According to the hedonic consumption model, as proposed by Hirschman and Holbrook, hedonic attributes such as entertainment and aesthetics values and hedonic attitudes such as exciting, fun, delightful, thrilling, and enjoyable are essential for brand equity. Sheng and Teo argued that both utilitarian and hedonic attributes are important for brand loyalty and brand equity. Furthermore, according to brand attachment theory, people tend to develop affectionate ties with particular persons, so creating a brand personality that is tied with particular consumers should increase their purchase intention.

Therefore, we proposed the following hypotheses: Hypothesis 3: Experiential antecedents will positively influence brand personality. Marketing Antecedents In a competitive market, marketing is recognized as one of the most important factors to promote sales because appropriate marketing initiatives can create both cognitive and affective commitment. Taleghani and Almasi suggested that the brand-related constructs of product sales promotion, store image, brand accessibility, and advertising can further promote brand equity. In addition, Keller and Rust, Lemon, and Zeithaml emphasized the importance of increasing brand equity through conducting a variety of marketing and promotional activities.

On the basis of the above review, we identified six marketing antecedents that can influence CBBE either directly, or indirectly through brand personality: 1 advertising, 2 sales promotion, 3 brand accessibility, 4 store image, 5 product presentation, and 6 perceived value. Furthermore, Ouwersloot and Tudorica argued that marketing activities influence brand personality, and Batra, Lehmann, and Singh asserted that the personality of a brand is created over a long time period because it is composed of all marketing components.

Lee, Anh, and Kim also argued that marketing efforts significantly influence brand loyalty and band equity. Therefore, we proposed the following hypotheses: Hypothesis 5: Marketing factors will positively influence brand personality. Hypothesis 6: Marketing factors will positively influence brand equity. Brand Personality and Brand Equity The benefits of mediation are well-known from the points of view of both spiritual enlightenment and clinical psychology.

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Venkatraman asserted that a mediation effect represents the existence of a significant mechanism between an antecedent or independent variable and the consequence or dependent variable. Aaker, , p. Per the theory of animism, consumers tend to identify with a brand that represents his or her self-concept.

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Therefore, we proposed the following hypothesis: Hypothesis 7: Brand personality will positively influence brand equity. Method Measures We identified five research constructs and evaluated the interrelationships among them: 1 experiential factors, 2 cognitive factors, 3 marketing factors, 4 brand personality, and 5 brand equity.


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Participants and Procedure Survey data were collected between February and March , via intercept interviews conducted in malls, department stores, and other public shopping areas. Intercept interviews have the advantage of gaining access to relevant participants and providing researchers with the opportunity for personal contact with respondents He et al. Respondents were the purchasers of a variety of cosmetic brand products in Taiwan, who were asked to identify the cosmetic brands they favored, then interviewed about their perception of one of the brands they had mentioned.

Of the valid respondents, With regard to annual income, Most respondents had less than 3 years of tenure at their jobs Among the valid respondents, Campbell and Fiske stated that an outcome of CMV is inflation of the observed correlations, which may provide false support for the hypotheses.

The explained variance of the one-factor test was All AVE estimates see Table 2 were greater than the corresponding interconstruct square correlation estimates.


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  6. These empirical results suggest that CMV was not a significant issue in this study. Therefore, PLS path modeling is increasingly being used by marketing and behavioral researchers, because it allows latent constructs to be modeled under conditions of nonnormal distribution with small to medium sample sizes. Hair et al. In this study, R2 ranged from.

    The AVE of the constructs ranged from. The composite reliability CR coefficients ranged from. On this basis, the reliability and convergent validity of the research model are appropriate; thus, we were able to proceed to an evaluation of the structural model. Evaluation of the Structural Model We examined the structural model and hypotheses by calculating the parameter estimates of the path between research constructs. Using a sample size of , a nonparametric bootstrapping procedure was performed with 2, subsamples to obtain the statistical significance of each path coefficient for hypotheses testing.

    The GFI is used to measure the overall fitness between the data and the model; for our structural model it was. Therefore, Hypotheses 1 and 2 were supported. Therefore, Hypotheses 3 and 4 were supported. Therefore, Hypotheses 5 and 6 were supported. Therefore, Hypothesis 7 was supported. Several conclusions can be drawn from our results. Aaker , as a pioneer of brand equity, originally identified the positive influence of brand awareness, brand association, and perceived quality on brand equity. Following the theory of animism Guthrie, , brand awareness and brand association have been asserted to be the major predictors of brand personality, and our results further confirm that brand managers should focus on the above core components to promote brand equity.

    Aaker, , in which consumers are assumed to be rational human beings.

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    Effect of Nostalgia on Customer Loyalty to Brand Post-Merger / Acquisition

    Marketing staff should, therefore, focus their efforts on the functions and performance of the brand to persuade consumers to make purchases. In addition, the experiential antecedents of experiential perceptions, entertainment value, aesthetic value, brand attachment, enjoyment value, and hedonic attitude, all enhanced brand personality and brand equity. These results are also in line with those obtained in previous studies. For example, Sheng and Teo argued that higher entertainment value can, by inducing playfulness, enjoyment, and delight, result in higher brand equity. Further, Hirschman and Holbrook contended that hedonic attributes e.

    Therefore, the experiential aspect of antecedents has a significant influence on brand personality and brand equity. Our results further emphasize the need to focus on the experiential side of brand marketing to promote brand personality and brand equity. These results are in line with those obtained in previous studies. Ouwersloot and Tudorica stated that advertising, as one of the most important marketing initiatives, influences how consumers form their perceptions of brand personality.

    Ouwersloot and Tudorica further commented that designing marketing activities that are targeted toward satisfying the needs and wants of customers is the primary issue. As such, organizations should aim to identify the best message to communicate their brand identity to target consumers Ghodeswar, Specifically, Taleghani and Almasi proposed that marketing staff focus on promoting service quality, store image, brand accessibility, advertising, and perceived quality to elicit cognitive evaluations, whereas Sheng and Teo suggested that marketing strategies be focused on promoting the aesthetic and hedonic aspects of the product to elicit experiential evaluations.

    Fourth, we found that brand personality had a positive impact on brand equity. Consumers tend to prefer brands that are compatible with their own perceived personality or self-image Puzakova et al. Rajagopal pointed out that, when the domain of brand personality is extended to the domain of human personality, an effective long-term relationship between the firm and the consumer can be established.

    Such a relationship will further promote brand loyalty and brand equity. Finally, brand personality was found to serve as a partial mediator of the influences of marketing, cognitive, and experiential antecedents on brand equity. Our results suggest that brand personality is a crucial variable that not only has a direct impact on brand equity but can also indirectly influence brand equity through mediating variables, such as the antecedents of brand personality. Brand personality may serve as a bonding agent providing firms with connections between the brand and the customers; thus marketing staff should view it as a key performance index for customer retention.

    That is, brand personality can be used in the process of brand positioning to extend brand personality to human personality. Study Limitations and Future Research Directions Although our results draw attention to the influences of antecedents of brand personality, as well as the mediating role that brand personality plays in the relationship between the proposed antecedents and brand equity, there remain several limitations to this study that necessitate further research.