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Black, U. Prentice Hall Google Scholar. There is often confusion about the priority of these specifications where it comes to optionality of information elements that may be carried in CAMEL operations. Examples are the following. But again, the stage 2 is leading with a range of 10 — 40s! A parameter that is specified in stage 3 may be used by different stage 2 information flows.

These stage 2 information flows may specify different restrictions on the use of this parameter. A GSM operator may offer an IN service to its subscribers; this IN service may be used in identical manner in the home network and when roaming in other networks. The transfer Subscribers of the GSM network may subscribe to these services. In that way, the supplementary service is personalised for that subscriber.

In this situation, the HLR shall take a fallback action during registration. This option may be used for GSM subscribers who subscribe to e. The subscriber will not have the VPN features available in this network, such as short number dialing. But at least, the pre-paid subscriber can register in the network and make outgoing calls. BAOC prevents the subscriber from establishing outgoing calls or forwarding calls.

The ability to receive calls is not affected. This option may e. See chapter 4 for a description of USSD. The fallback option may normally be set per subscriber. See figure 2- 10 for an example. Further refinement is possible. An Operation may be regarded as a mechanism for one entity to start a procedure in the peer entity. The entity receiving an Operation may send a response to the sender of the Operation. The sending of a response depends on the specific Operation and on the outcome of the processing of the Operation.

Three types of information may be specified for each Operation. Argument: the sender of an Operation may include an Argument in the Operation. The argument contains parameters that shall be used as input for the procedure call. For example, the Argument of the IDP Operation contains a set of parameters that are used for service logic processing.

Result: for some Operations, a Result is defined. The receiver may report the outcome of the processing of the Operation in the Result. Errors: for most Operations, the receiver may return an Error. An Error is sent when the receiver encountered a problem in processing the Operation. If the sender of an Operation does not receive an Operation Error within a defined time period, then the sender assumes that the Operation was executed successfully.

The Argument consists of a sequence of parameters. That implies that the Argument may or may not contain that parameter. The formats of the various parameters are specified in CAP. Extensive tutorials on ASN. CAP uses two of these mechanisms. However, there exists no ASN. The ellipsis allows for future extension of the data type definition.

CAMEL: Intelligent Networks for the GSM, GPRS and UMTS Network

Placing the new parameter after the ellipsis may be done without impacting the protocol version. If the receiver does not recognise any parameter after the ellipsis, then the receiver ignores that parameter.

CAMEL Intelligent Networks for the GSM, GPRS and UMTS Network

A practical use case could be the addition of a frequency indicator in Burst. The ellipsis is e. Extension Container The Extension Container is a data type definition that facilitates the transfer of operator-specific or vendor-specific information in an Operation. The operator may decide to place designated information elements in the Extension Containers. The identifier identifies the type of data that is contained in the Extension Container. The identifier shall be unique for an operator; Extension Containers are identified by means of a Global Object Identifier, which, if used properly, guarantees global uniqueness of a data type definition.

This network-specific information may e. Extension Containers shall be used only between entities that are configured to use these specific Extension Container definitions. A basic principle of BER is that data elements are encoded in the format as presented in figure If the data element to be encoded is e. The Length part of the BER- encoded data element indicates the number of octets contained in the Data part.

The Data part contains the actual data that is conveyed. The type of the data element that is contained in the Data part, e. The encoded data element then takes the form as indicated in figure Steedman; Technology Appraisals, []. Only the numerical values of the elements within the Object Identifier are transported, not the element tags. For the above example, the AC is represented by the following sequence of numbers: A signalling point may e.

An MSC may e. The SCCP link may span several networks, e. When a signalling connection spans different regions, e. Two releases of SCCP are commonly used. The colour reference of the SCCP recommendations relates to the colour of the printed books in which these recommendations were published! This is achieved, amongst others, through message segmentation and re-assembly.

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  5. When an entity determines that the amount of data to transport in an SCCP message exceeds said maximum length, it may transport the data in a series of individual MAP messages, each one within Blue SCCP message length constraint. The receiving entity combines the data received in the successive MAP messages.

    One rationale of this principle is that the operator of the network containing the SCP may alter the SS7 network configuration in that network. Altering network configuration may involve changes in SPC allocation. Rationale of this restriction is that the entity that initiates a global service should not receive information about the network configuration of the other operator. One node in a GSM network may contain e. Instead, the node may have to analyse e. The SSN is used during dialogue establishment only. For that reason, the SSN was changed to This is done by the transfer of TC messages between the entities.

    A TC dialogue runs from signalling end point to signalling end point. STPs in the signalling link are not involved in the TC dialogue. The following TC messages are used for the dialogue management. The transfer of AC is done only during dialogue establishment.