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Both require the perceptual understanding of the building. Subtractive, when utilized in designing, results in a building in wh ich the whole is dominant. For example, it is possible to add units together to form a whole from which pieces are subtracted. It is also possible to subtract pieces from an identifiable whole and then to add the subtracted parts back to create the building.

With these ranges the rank ordering can occur in the realm of the formal , spatial, or both. Quality, richness, detail, ornament, and special materials were used as indicators of importance. Hierarchy, as a design idea, can be related to and support any of the other issues explored in the analysis. From the analysis of the 88 buildings in the first section, patterns in the design consideration of various architects were identified.

Similarities in design approaches appeared among many of the architects' works, independent of time, style, location, function, or type of building. A formative idea is understood to be a concept which a designer can use to influence or give form to a design. The ideas offer ways to organize decisions, to provide order, and to consciously generate form.


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The use of different ordering ideas may generate different results. The written description is followed by a set of diagrams vihich exemplify some, but not all, of the generic alternatives. Embodied in this is the linking of the two realms so that decisions in one arena determine or influence the form of the other. The most direct connection between the plan and section occurs 'when they are the same-when the delineation of the two is equal. A sphere, for example, is a figure in which the plan and section are represented by one circle. For example, a one to one-half relationship exists in a building that has a section or elevation equal in figure and dimension to one-half of the plan.

In this case, a circle in plan becomes a half-circle in section, creating a hemisphere. The reciprocal condition is also possible, where the whole plan form of a building is the same as one-half of the section or elevation. In either case, the figures that appear in both plan and section are equal in dimension. A special condition occurs when the same part of each figure overlaps, such as in the definition of the main space at the Villa Rotonda.

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A relationship of proportion by ratio can be used to link the plan '! Distinct from the part to. Examples of ratios which are often used because of their compatibility with primary geometry are 1 : 2, 2 : 3, and 1 : 5. In each case, the plan and section have configurations that differ by dimension in one direction only. In the case of a 1 : 2 relationship, the plan and the section have the same shape, but one is twice the other in one dimension.

For example, a circle in plan would be an oval in section, with the height one-half the width. It is not necessary, though, for each of the parts in the plan to be reduced or increased at the same rate when they are utilized in the section or elevation.

In Christ Church, by Hawksmoor, for instance, while one element is reduced when it appears in the other realm, the other element is increased. Plan and section or elevation can have a relationship identified specifically as analogous when the information from one is seen to resemble generally the shape of the other.

This type of relationship between the plan and section is the most common, and often involves part of the plan and section rather than the entire plan or section form.

Precedents in architecture second edition by Lynsey Yuan Lyn - Issuu

In a form language change an orthogonal element in plan or section may be paired with a comparable curve form in the other realm. When size and location shifts occur, an element in the horizontal arena is larger or smaller, or in a slightly different location than in the vertical dimension.

In increment change the plan or section information changes at one rate while the correlative information in the other changes in a similar way, but at a different rate. For example, when the plan form has components which are large, or simple, or positive, or random, that correspond to section elements that are. In this type of relationship, decisions about the plan or section establish a range of possible configurations for the other. A part to whole relationship can be created between the plan and the section. In this context, one configuration serves as the whole shape, which, by reduction, becomes a part in the other configuration.

The whole is evident in this relationship in its entirety as a part in the other domain, but in reduced dimensions. Plan and section can also have a coincident relationship when significant points and limits in the plan form coincide with important points in the section. The Allegheny Courthouse by H. Richardson, which is analyzed in the first part of this book, exemplifies this relationship. A final alternative to the plan and section relationship is that of common derivation or common origin.

In this case, the plan and the section configurations are determined by separate derivation from a common origin. For example, in San Maria degliAngeli by Filippo Brunelleschi, which is also in the analysis section, the plan and section forms are both developed from two overlapped squares that are rotated 45 degrees to each other.

In the plan, the two squares have a common center, while in the section, the comer of one square intersects the middle of a side of the other. Units can exist within a building at several scales. The most direct relationship between a unit and the whole occurs when the two are the same entity-when the unit is equal to the whole.

This usually occurs in buildings which are designed as minimal monolithic forms. At a greatly reduced level of importance this perception may be qualified to include the surface texture or pattern developed by the fine scale cladding units. The most prevalent form of unit to whole relationship is the aggregation of units to create the whole. To aggregate units is to put the units in proximity with each other such that some relationship is perceived to exist. The units may or may not be in physical contact with each other in order for a relationship to be identified.

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Adjoining is the most common form of aggregation. In this relationship the units are visible, perceived as entities, and relate to other units through face to face, face to edge,. Interlocking is one variation of face to face adjoining. Units may be separate and at the same time related to other units to form a whole.

For this to happen the units are identified as entities that partially share form or space with other units. Units can also be contained within a built whole. It is possible for a building whole to have more built form than that generated by the assemblage of the identified units. This relationship can be described as the whole is greater than the sum of the parts.

In this case, some of the built form serves as a matrix which holds, connects, or at times, just has contact with the units. Fundamental to this idea is the understanding of unique to be a difference within a class or a kind. For example, massing units are compared with massing units to determine the differentiating features which make one unit unique.

If massing units were compared to windows or structure, the nature of the difference might never be discerned because of the disparity of characteristics to be compared. Repetitive and unique elements can occur at a number of varied scales and levels within a building.

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In most cases, the repetitive and unique will appear in the same vertical or horizontal arena. San Maria degli Angeli by Brunelleschi is an example of this separation. Shape, geometry, and articulation changes can also render an element unique. If the unique element is in part the same configuration as the repetitive, then a transformation by shape exists. In this situation, a circle is unique to repeated squares. For example, a transparent cube is unique by articulation to a series of opaque cubes. The repetitive elements are located around it. It is possible, but not necessary, for the repetitive elements to be coincident with the boundary of the unique.

However, a change in the arrangement of the repetitive elements will not change the unique that is surrounded. The counterpart relationship where the unique surrounds the repetitive is also possible.


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  7. An alternative to the unique surrounded configuration occurs when the unique is defined by the arrangement of the repetitive. The distinction between this alternative and the unique surrounded model is determined by the manner in which the unique is established.

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